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Gastroesophageal Reflux

Contributors: Andrea Johnson, RD, CSP, LDN

Published: November 22, 2021

Reviewed: October 21, 2021

What You Need to Know About GERD

Many people have a passing case of indigestion from time to time. But when it occurs frequently, it could be indicative of a more serious condition called gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD.

What is GERD?

GERD is a digestive disorder in which stomach acids, food and fluids flow back into the esophagus. It can occur at any age and may be temporary or a long-term issue. The danger of untreated GERD is that it can cause health problems such as inflammation of the esophagus, which is a risk factor for esophageal cancer. It also may lead to respiratory problems such as asthma, fluid in the lungs, chest congestion, wheezing and pneumonia.

Recognizing the Symptoms

Heartburn is the most common symptom, but not everyone experiences this. People with GERD also may notice they have bad breath, coughing, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting. Difficulty swallowing and erosion of your teeth also are signs, but this may happen after you have had GERD for a while.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Sometimes your doctor can diagnose GERD based on symptoms and medical history. Other times, further testing is necessary, and you will be referred to a gastroenterologist. You may need to have a chest X-ray to detect potential breathing problems and lung infections. An upper GI series is an X-ray examination of the digestive organs that can provide information about what is happening in your body. If needed, an endoscopy — a nonsurgical procedure during which a flexible tube passes through your GI tract to take pictures and tissue samples — may be ordered. An instrument called a pH probe can help track the flow of acid from your stomach.

Medication may be necessary if you have tried everything and nothing works. Lifestyle changes that may help alleviate the problem without medicine include quitting smoking, losing weight, wearing loose-fitting clothing, staying upright for a few hours after meals and sleeping with the head of the bed elevated.

Nutrition and Prevention

Knowing what and when to eat can go a long way in preventing bothersome GERD flare-ups. One significant culprit that can cause symptoms is fatty food. Try to choose lean meats, poultry, fish, tofu and beans as protein sources. Limit the amount of added butter and oil in your meals. Opt for baked dishes instead of fried foods. Pastries can be hidden sources of fat. Low-fat dairy is a great source of calcium and vitamin D that also may help prevent GERD symptoms when substituted for full-fat options.

Certain foods and ingredients may worsen GERD symptoms. Mint, chocolate, alcohol, caffeine, acidic foods and spicy foods may trigger a flare-up.

The timing and amount of food consumed also can make a difference in how you feel. Avoid large meals and opt instead for smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day.

Although we know the general triggers that can make GERD worse, customizing a lifestyle that works best for you can take some time. Try keeping a log of what you eat and drink throughout the day. Note when symptoms seem to flare up and review your log over time to identify patterns. Stay in contact with your doctor and a registered dietitian nutritionist so they can help guide you to the best prevention and treatment strategies.

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