Braise, broil, poach, simmer — what does it all mean? Following healthful recipes is easier if you understand cooking vocabulary. Whether you are new to the kitchen or just need a refresher, understanding the basics of common cooking techniques will help you navigate through recipes and get healthy meals on the table with ease. From slicing to steaming, here's how to talk the talk in the kitchen.
The B, C, and Ds of Cooking
Bake: type of dry heat cooking — cook food surrounded by hot air, usually in an oven
Barbecue/grill: type of dry heat cooking — to roast food over a charcoal or hardwood fire
Boil: type of moist heat cooking — cooking food in a rapid boil
Braise: to brown, then simmer over low heat in a small amount of liquid (water, broth or even fruit juice) in a covered pot for a lengthy time on the stove or in the oven
Broil: to cook with direct heat, usually under a heating element in the oven
Chop: cut food into smaller pieces of no particular size or shape
Dice: cut foods into uniform square pieces
Deep-fry: type of dry heat cooking — cook food by submerging it in hot oil
Dry heat cooking: methods that use hot air, the heat from a pan or grill, or hot fat to cook foods.
From G to Ps & Qs
Grate: rub food against a serrated surface to create fine shreds
Grill: to cook with heat directly over hot coals or another heat source
Mince: cut food into very small pieces
Moist heat cooking: methods that use water or liquids such as broth to cook foods
Panbroil: to cook uncovered in a preheated, nonstick skillet without added fat or water
Poach: type of moist heat cooking — to cook gently in liquid, just below boiling, until the liquid’s surface starts to shimmer
Quadriller: to make a crisscross pattern on the outside of grilled or broiled food
R to Z
Roast: type of dry heat cooking — to cook uncovered with dry heat in the oven
Sauté: type of dry heat cooking — to cook quickly in a small amount of fat, stirring so the food browns evenly
Simmer: type of moist heat cooking — cooking food in a hot liquid that is bubbling but not boiling
Slice: to cut through or across into slices, generally of uniform size
Steam: type of moist heat cooking — to cook with steam heat over (not in) boiling water, or wrapped in foil or leaf (such as lettuce or banana leaves) packets over boiling water or on a grill
Stew: to cook in liquid, such as water, juice, wine, broth or stock, in a tightly covered pot over low heat
Stir-fry: to cook small pieces of meat, poultry, seafood, tofu and/or vegetables in a very small amount of oil, perhaps with added broth, over very high heat, stirring as you cook
Zest: to scrape the outer rind of a piece of citrus fruit for flavoring
Be in the Know
Knowing these culinary techniques can help to bring out the flavor of foods without the need to add a lot of extra ingredients or calories. The healthiest cooking methods require only a little amount of fat:
- Sautéing and stir-frying use a small amount of oil, compared with frying or deep-frying.
- Steaming helps foods retain more nutrients, since they are not soaking in water, as is the case with boiling.
- Grilling also can influence the flavor of foods, but it's important to avoid charring them, which occurs when they turn black.
- Marinating meats and vegetables prior to grilling can help.
And, remember that cooking all foods to the appropriate internal temperatures is important, regardless of how the food is prepared!