Food Allergies Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity

Contributors: Rachel Begun, MS, RDN
gluten free spelled out on cutting board


It can be quite confusing when one person avoiding gluten can't eat french fries prepared in a shared fryer but another will take a small bite of bread pudding. The array of terminology used only adds to the confusion: allergy, intolerance, sensitivity, celiac disease.

No matter what term is being used, the important rules of thumb for keeping your friends and family safe are to listen carefully to their needs, ask questions if you're unsure and confirm their requests.

Food Allergies

With food allergies, the body triggers attack mode when a problem food is eaten, resulting in immediate symptoms such as itching, swelling and hives. For many individuals, more severe symptoms occur such as trouble breathing and swallowing, a drop in blood pressure and loss of consciousness. Death can and does occur. While any food can cause a reaction, 90% of all reactions are from eight foods: milk, wheat, eggs, soy, fish, shellfish, nuts and peanuts.

People with food allergies must avoid the offending foods, even in small amounts. A past exposure may have been mild but future contact with the allergen can result in a stronger and potentially life-threatening response.

Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system causes an attack on the intestines when gluten is eaten. While the symptoms are not immediately life-threatening, they can be devastating. Continuous exposure to gluten can result in serious long-term health conditions, even for those who don't experience outward symptoms.

People with celiac disease need to avoid gluten 100%, including small amounts introduced through cross-contact.

Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (also known as gluten sensitivity) is neither an allergic nor autoimmune response. The symptoms often overlap with those of celiac disease, but something different is going on in the body. Symptoms negatively affect quality of life and recent research suggests the intestines may also be damaged.

Because we don't know if there are long-term health consequences to continuous exposure, individuals with gluten sensitivity make their own decisions about what kind of gluten-free diet they wish to follow. Some choose to completely avoid gluten, while others may be more lenient in their efforts to avoid risk of cross-contact.

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