Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD, is a complex developmental and neurological condition that typically appears during the first three years of life. It affects brain function, particularly in the areas of social interaction and communication skills. Classic symptoms include delayed talking, lack of interest in playing with other children, not wanting to be held or cuddled and poor eye contact. There is no known cause for ASD, but both genetics and environment are believed to play a role.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates 1 in every 44 American children has been identified with ASD. Boys are more likely to be diagnosed with autism than girls.
People with ASD often may repeat behaviors or have narrow, restricted interests. These types of behavior can affect eating habits and food choices, which can lead to the following health concerns.
- Limited food selection or strong food dislikes. Someone with autism may be sensitive to the taste, smell, color and texture of foods. They may limit or totally avoid some foods and even whole food groups. Dislikes may include strongly flavored foods, fruits and vegetables or certain textures such as slippery or soft foods.
- Not eating enough food. Kids with autism may have difficulty focusing on one task for an extended period of time. It may be hard for a child to sit down and eat a meal from start to finish.
- Constipation. This problem may be caused by a child's limited food choices, low physical activity levels or medications. It typically can be remedied by gradually increasing sources of dietary fiber, such as bran cereals, fruits and vegetables, along with plenty of fluids and regular physical activity.
- Medication interactions. Some stimulant medications used with autism can lower appetite. This can reduce the amount of food a child eats, which may affect growth. Other medications may increase appetite or affect the absorption of certain vitamins and minerals. If your child takes medication, ask your healthcare provider about possible side effects.
For children with ASD, a nutritious, balanced eating plan can make a world of difference in their ability to learn, how they manage their emotions and how they process information. Because children with ASD often avoid certain foods or have restrictions on what they eat, as well as difficulty sitting through mealtimes, they may not be getting all the nutrients they need.
If you have a child with ASD, try these nutrition strategies.
Be Prepared for Pickiness
Many parents find their child's sensitivity to tastes, colors, smells and textures are the biggest barriers to a balanced eating plan. Getting your child to try new foods — especially those that are soft and slippery — may seem nearly impossible. You may find that your child avoids certain foods or even entire food groups. One of the easiest ways to approach sensory issues is to tackle them outside of the kitchen. Have your child visit the supermarket with you to choose a new food. When you get home, research it together on the internet to learn about where it grows. Then, decide together how to prepare it. When you are done, don't worry if your child doesn't want to eat it. Simply becoming familiar with new foods in a low-pressure, positive way eventually can help your child become a more flexible eater.
Make Mealtimes Routine
A child with ASD will have to work harder at mealtimes because a busy kitchen, bright lights and even the way the furniture is arranged all are potential stressors. Making meals as predictable and routine as possible can help. Serving meals at the same time every day is one of the simplest ways to reduce stress. In addition, think about what concessions you can make for easier mealtimes. If your child is sensitive to lights, try dimming them or consider using lamps or candlelight with adult supervision instead of an overhead light. Let your child pick a favorite food to include at every meal. Or, let your child choose a favorite seat at the table.
Seek Guidance for Special Diets
You may have heard that a gluten- or casein-free diet can improve symptoms of ASD. Gluten is a type of protein found in wheat, rye and barley. Casein is a protein found in milk. Proponents of the diet believe people with autism have a "leaky gut," or intestine, which allows parts of gluten and casein to seep into the bloodstream and affect the brain and central nervous system. The belief is that this may lead to autism or magnify its symptoms. However, controlled scientific studies have not proven this to be true, so the research at this time does not support the use of these diets. Keep in mind that restrictive diets require careful planning to make sure your child's nutrition needs are being met. Consult with a registered dietitian nutritionist before making any drastic changes to your child's meal plan as there can be side effects and potential nutrient shortfalls when a gluten- or casein-free diet is self-prescribed.
Working With a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist
Most children, with or without autism, can be choosy and particular about the foods they eat. A registered dietitian nutritionist can identify any nutritional risks based on how your child eats, answer your questions about the effectiveness and safety of nutrition therapies and supplements and help guide your child on how to eat well and live healthfully.