March is National Nutrition Month, when the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics reminds everyone to return to the basics of healthy eating. It is also the time of year when the Academy celebrates expertise of registered dietitian nutritionists as the food and nutrition experts.
After a hurricane or flooding, people need to assess all food and food preparation areas and equipment to decide what to keep or throw away. Hurricanes, especially if accompanied by a tidal surge or flooding, can contaminate the public water supply. Water in the hurricane-affected area may not be safe to drink. Local announcements should provide updated information on the supply.
- Do not eat any food that may have come into contact with flood water. If in doubt, throw it out.
- Do not eat food packed in plastic, paper, cardboard, cloth and similar containers that have been water damaged.
- Discard food and beverage containers with screw-caps, snap lids, crimped caps (soda bottles), twist caps, flip tops and home canned foods, if they have come in contact with flood water. These containers cannot be disinfected.
- Undamaged, commercially-prepared foods in all-metal cans or retort pouches can be saved if you remove the labels, thoroughly wash the cans, rinse them, and then disinfect them with a sanitizing solution consisting of 1 tablespoon of bleach per gallon of potable water. Finally, re-label containers that had the labels removed, including the expiration date, with a marker.
Area health departments will determine whether the tap water can be used for drinking. If the water is not potable or is questionable, then follow these directions to purify it:
- Use bottled water that has not been exposed to flood waters if it is available.
- If you don't have bottled water, you should boil water to make it safe. Boiling water will kill most types of disease-causing organisms that may be present. If the water is cloudy, filter it through clean cloths or allow it to settle, and draw off the clear water for boiling. Boil the water and let it cool, and store it in clean containers with covers.
- If you can't boil water, you can disinfect it using household bleach. Bleach will kill some, but not all, types of disease-causing organisms that may be in the water. If the water is cloudy, filter it through clean cloths or allow it to settle, and draw off the clear water for disinfection. Add ⅛ teaspoon (or 8 drops) of regular, unscented, liquid household bleach for each gallon of water, stir it well and let it stand for 30 minutes before you use it. Store disinfected water in clean containers with covers.
- If you have a well that has been flooded, the water should be tested and disinfected after flood waters recede. If you suspect that your well may be contaminated, contact your local or state health department or agriculture extension agent for specific advice.
Food Contact Surfaces and Equipment
- When cleaning or disinfecting, wear protective clothing, such as gloves, to avoid skin contact, irritation or infection.
- Discard wooden cutting boards, wooden dishes and utensils, plastic utensils, baby bottle nipples and pacifiers that have come into contact with flood water. These items cannot be safely cleaned.
- Thoroughly wash metal pans, ceramic dishes and utensils (including can openers) with soap and water, using hot water if available. Rinse and then sanitize by boiling in clean water or immersing them for 15 minutes in a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of drinking water (or the cleanest, clearest water available).
- Thoroughly wash countertops with soap and water, using hot water if available. Rinse and then sanitize by applying a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of drinking water (or the cleanest, clearest water available). Allow to air dry.
- Make sure to carefully clean corners, cracks and crevices, door handles and door seals in rooms that have been affected by flood water.
- If the power in a refrigerator goes out, keep the refrigerator and freezer doors closed as much as possible to maintain the cold temperature. The refrigerator will keep food cold for about four hours if it is unopened. A full freezer will keep the temperature for approximately 48 hours (24 hours if it is half full) if the door remains closed. Buy dry or block ice to keep the refrigerator as cold as possible if the power is going to be out for a prolonged period of time. Fifty pounds of dry ice should hold an 18-cubic-foot fully-stocked freezer cold for two days.
- Once the power is restored, determine the safety of your food. If an appliance thermometer was kept in the freezer, check the temperature when the power comes back on. If the freezer thermometer reads 40°F or below, the food is safe and may be refrozen. If a thermometer has not been kept in the freezer, check each package of food to determine its safety. You can't rely on appearance or odor. If the food still contains ice crystals or is 40°F or below, it is safe to refreeze or cook.
- Refrigerated food should be safe as long as the power was out for no more than four hours. Keep the door closed as much as possible. Discard any perishable food (such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs or leftovers) that has been above 40°F for two hours or more.
- Perishable food such as meat, poultry, seafood, milk and eggs that are not kept adequately refrigerated or frozen may cause illness if consumed, even when they are thoroughly cooked.
- Discard refrigerators that have been submerged in flood water, or if enough moisture was present from liquefied food items to reach the insulation inside the equipment.
- Run your dishwasher, empty through three complete cycles to flush the water lines and assure that they are cleaned internally before washing equipment and utensils in it.
- Discard all ice in ice machines; clean and sanitize (1 tablespoon of bleach per gallon of potable water) the interior surfaces; run the ice through three cycles; and discard ice with each cycle.
- Replace all ice machine filters and beverage dispenser filters and flush all water lines for 10 to 15 minutes.
For more information on keeping food safe before and after an emergency, go to FoodSafety.gov/keep/emergency.