March is National Nutrition Month, when the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics reminds everyone to return to the basics of healthy eating. It is also the time of year when the Academy celebrates expertise of registered dietitian nutritionists as the food and nutrition experts.
During pregnancy, women and their unborn children are more likely to become very ill from food poisoning. Newborns and infants also are at risk because their immune systems are not fully developed. Infections from foodborne illness can be difficult to treat and can recur in these groups. Use the following rules to reduce risk of harm to mother and her unborn child .
Wash Hands Often
It seems so simple, but it really does work. Proper hand washing may eliminate nearly half of all potential cases of foodborne illness. It also significantly reduces the spread of the common cold and flu. Remember: wash your hands before, during and after meal preparation. Use warm, soapy water for at least 20 seconds. And use a clean, dry towel to dry your hands.
Practice Good Refrigerator Safety Habits
First, make sure your refrigerator works. Set it cooler than 40 degrees Fahrenheit. Use a refrigerator thermometer and check it regularly.
Then, use your refrigerator properly. Put perishable foods in the refrigerator as soon as you get home from the store. Refrigerate leftovers within two hours. When outdoor temperatures reach 90 degrees Fahrenheit or warmer, refrigerate leftovers within one hour. Store foods in small, shallow containers (2 inches deep or less). Discard opened packages of luncheon meats or spreads after three to five days. Eat foods by the "use-by" date on the package. If that date has passed, throw it away.
Thaw frozen foods in the refrigerator, under cold running water or in the microwave right before cooking. Do not leave frozen foods on the counter or in the sink to thaw.
Keep Raw Meats and Ready-to-Eat Foods Separate
Prevent cross-contamination by keeping raw foods separate from ready-to-eat foods. Use two cuttings boards: one strictly for raw meat, poultry and seafood; the other for ready-to-eat foods like breads and vegetables. Wash cutting boards thoroughly in hot, soapy water after each use or place in dishwasher. Discard old cutting boards that have cracks, crevices and knife scars.
Cook to Proper Temperatures
Proper cooking temperatures kill harmful bacteria present in food. Always use a meat thermometer to check the doneness of meat, poultry, seafood and dishes containing eggs. Use the following quick internal temperature guide:
- Beef, veal, pork, lamb: 145 degrees Fahrenheit (then, allow to rest three minutes before carving or consuming)
- Poultry: 165 degrees
- Ground beef, veal, pork, lamb: 160 degrees
- Ground poultry: 165 degrees
- Casseroles, egg dishes: 160 degrees
- Finfish: 145 degrees or until opaque flesh flakes with a fork
- Scallops: cook until flesh is milky white or opaque and firm
- Shrimp, lobster and crab: cook until flesh is pearly and opaque
- Clams, oysters and mussels: cook until shells open during cooking
- Leftovers: reheat to at least 165 degrees
- Deli-style meats and hotdogs: reheat until steaming hot
- Soups, gravies and sauces: bring to boil
- Meat marinade: boil for several minutes if you plan to re-use it.
- Eggs: whether boiling, frying or scrambling, make sure the yolks and whites are firm, not runny
Foods to Avoid
In addition to keeping good food safety habits, there are certain foods that pregnant women should not eat:
- Rare, raw or undercooked meats and poultry (rare hamburgers, carpaccio and beef or steak tartare)
- Raw fish (including sushi, sashimi, ceviche and carpaccio)
- Undercooked and raw shellfish (clams, oysters, mussels and scallops)
- Fish containing high levels of mercury (swordfish, tilefish, king mackerel and shark)
- Refrigerated smoked seafood, unless it is in a cooked dish, such as a casserole.
- Unpasteurized dairy products ("raw" milk and cheeses)
- Some fresh soft cheeses (Brie, Camembert, blue-veined varieties and Mexican-style queso fresco) unless made with pasteurized milk
- Raw or undercooked eggs (soft-cooked, runny or poached)
- Food items that contain undercooked eggs (unpasteurized eggnog, Monte Cristo sandwiches, French toast, homemade Caesar salad dressing, Hollandaise sauce, some puddings and custards, chocolate mousse, tiramisu and raw cookie dough or cake batter)
- Raw sprouts (alfalfa, clover and radish)
- Deli salads
- Unpasteurized fruit and vegetable juices
- Refrigerated pate or meat spreads
Some ready-to-eat foods require reheating before use. These foods include hot dogs, luncheon and deli meats and fermented and dry sausages. Throw away packaged items once the "use-by" date has passed.
If you think you have contracted a foodborne illness, contact your health-care provider.