Overall Eating Patterns Are Most Important for Healthful Eating: Updated 'Total Diet' Position of Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
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CHICAGO – The overall pattern of food that a person eats is more important to a healthy diet than focusing on single foods or individual nutrients, according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in its newly updated position paper "Total Diet Approach to Healthy Eating."
According to the position paper: "In contrast to the total diet approach, classification of specific foods as 'good' or 'bad' is overly simplistic and may foster unhealthy eating behaviors." The Academy's position paper stresses that moderation, portion size and exercise are the key concepts for balancing food and beverage intakes.
The position paper has been published in the February Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and can be found on the Academy's website. It states:
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of healthy eating. All foods can fit within this pattern, if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with physical activity. The Academy strives to communicate healthy eating messages that emphasize a balance of food and beverages within energy needs, rather than any one food or meal.
The Academy's position paper has been updated to reflect the most current nutrition guidance, such as the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the USDA's MyPlate food guidance system; the White House's Let's Move! campaign to reduce childhood obesity and Healthy People 2020. Each of these public policies and dietary patterns supports the total diet approach.
According to the position paper, while studies including the Academy's "Nutrition and You" national consumer survey show Americans are "conscious of the importance of healthy diets and physical activity," most people do not meet the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines. For example, large majorities do not eat fruit (68 percent) or vegetables (74 percent) more than twice a day, and a substantial number (36 percent) engage in no leisure-time physical activity.
In that environment, according to the Academy: "Labeling specific foods in an overly simplistic manner as 'good foods' and 'bad foods' is not only inconsistent with the total diet approach, but it may cause many people to abandon efforts to make dietary improvements."
The position paper adds: "In 2011, 82 percent of U.S. adults cited not wanting to give up foods they like as a reason for not eating healthier. For these reasons, the concepts of moderation and proportionality are necessary components of a practical, action-oriented understanding of the total diet approach."
The Academy's position paper notes that the most recent Dietary Reference Intakes use a total diet approach because it allows for a broad range of foods to meet a person's nutrition needs over time. Therefore, a person can make diet choices based on individual preferences, genetic background, personal health status and food availability.
The position paper was written by registered dietitians Jeanne Freeland-Graves, Bess Heflin Centennial Professor in the department of nutritional sciences at the University of Texas – Austin; and Susan Nitzke, professor emerita and extension specialist in nutritional sciences at the University of Wisconsin – Madison.
The Academy's position paper contains advice and recommendations for health professionals as well as consumers. It explains how food and nutrition practitioners can use behavioral theories and models to develop effective nutrition communications; and how food and beverage choices are affected by multiple factors that influence people’s ability to make use of expert advice on healthy eating.
Updated sections of the position paper look at new indicators of nutrient quality, such as the Nutrient Rich Food Index, the European Union Nutrient Profiling System and the Overall Nutrient Quality Index. In addition, the Social Ecological model, used in the Dietary Guidelines, is incorporated into the Academy's position as "a guide for understanding why we eat what we do."
According to the Academy's position paper:
Food and nutrition practitioners have a responsibility to communicate unbiased food and nutrition information that is culturally sensitive, scientifically accurate, medically appropriate and tailored to the needs and preferences of the target audience. Some health and nutrition professionals and many 'pseudo-experts' promote specific types of foods to choose or avoid. A more responsible and effective approach is to help consumers understand and apply the principles of healthy diet and lifestyle choices. Unless there are extenuating circumstances (severe cognitive or physical limitations), the total diet approach is preferred because it is more consistent with research on effective communication and inclusive of cultural/personal differences.
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association) is the world’s largest organization of food and nutrition professionals. The Academy is committed to improving the nation’s health and advancing the profession of dietetics through research, education and advocacy. To locate a registered dietitian in your area, visit the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at www.eatright.org.